05 May 2011


Residential 10 Comments

Developer: The King And John Festival Corporation • Toronto International Film Festival Corporation
Architect: Kirkor Architects And Planners (Architect of Record) • Kuwabara Payne McKenna Blumberg Architects (Design)

This multi purpose project, located in Toronto, at the north-west corner of King and John Streets is home to the Toronto International Film Festival which has its offices on the fourth, fifth and sixth floors, of the podium component, above a four auditoria cinema complex in the second and third levels.  The ground floor and its mezzanine contain galleries, a restaurant and the residential lobby for the forty-two level condominium residential tower with three mechanical levels above the forty-second level residential floor.  The sixth floor mezzanine contains a small cinema for the exclusive use of the condominium residence, and the seventh floor, of the podium, serves to house the amenity pavilion, including a swimming pool, gardens, and an amphitheatre as well as a sports lounge.

Below the seven storey podium, there are five full levels, and a partial sixth level, of subgrade parking, with resident storage on levels P2 through P5, and bicycle lockers and visitor bicycle parking on the P1 level.

At the fourth level, to span over the four auditoria, of the cinema complex, there is a structural steel transfer structure to carry concrete columns supporting the office levels and amenity pavilion above.  Typically, the steel transfer system is comprised of pairs of 1400 mm deep welded wide flange composite beams, spanning in the north-south direction, below the lines of the columns above, between the concrete walls of the auditoria.  The paired beams carry 410 mm deep wide flange purlins, at approximately two metres on centre which in turn support 200 mm of reinforced concrete over 38 mm deep by 1.219 mm thick steel roof deck for an overall slab thickness of 240 mm.

At the sixth floor mezzanine, and the seventh floor levels, there are reinforced concrete beams with depths ranging from 600 mm to 1800 mm to transfer the loads in the shear walls, of the tower above, onto the columns below.  From the seventh floor up, the shear walls interact with the central core walls, of the mechanical and elevator shafts, and the scissor stairs to resist lateral forces due to wind and seismic affects.  The floors of the tower are typically 200 mm thick and are designed as one-way slabs spanning between shear walls and flat plates where supported by columns.

The concrete strength in the walls and columns, at twenty-eight days, ranges from 55 megapascals, below the P1 level, down to 30 megapascals above the thirty-fifth floor.

The seating in the auditoria of the cinema complex is installed on floating slabs supported on special isolation pads for acoustical attenuation.

04 May 2011


Residential 1 Comment

Developer: Great Gulf Homes
Architect: Hariri Pontarini Architects

This world class residential condominium, with retail spaces on the first and second levels, is located at the south-east corner of Yonge and Bloor Streets close to Toronto’s fashionable shopping district. The entire complex is constructed above six levels of subgrade parking.

The podium, rising from street level, contains retail, commercial, residential, and amenities spaces. The levels are clearly defined by the stepping back of the terraces on the Yonge Street elevation. The furthest step back at the seventh floor defines the west limit of the landscaped roof terraces and amenity area, below the tower.

At grade level, in the south-east corner of the podium, there is an eleven metre diameter specially designed depression to accommodate a turntable to facilitate commercial trucks in entering and leaving the truck loading area from Hayden Street.

From the ground floor up to the eighth floor, there is a central reinforced concrete core within a reinforced concrete core, with the outer core being carried on ten columns which extend down through the six parking levels on to a reinforced concrete mat footing, below which caissons were added to deal with the soil pressures and settlements below the mat. The specially reinforced central concrete core configurations interact with the surrounding shear walls to resist lateral forces resulting from wind and seismic affects. Special damper tanks, containing water, are located at the high roof level, above the seventy-first storey mechanical level and are designed to control lateral accelerations resulting from wind forces.

The tower envelope consists of a curtain wall system. The limits of the ends of the residential unit balconies step back and forth to present an undulating sculptured affect on the tower’s facades, which is made more dramatic by the aluminium handrails and the tempered glass of the balconies’ balustrades.

03 May 2011


Residential Comments Off on MAPLE LEAF SQUARE

Developer: Cadillac Fairview • Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment Ltd. • Lanterra Developments
Architect: Page + Steele Architects Planners

This mixed use development is located at the south-west of Toronto’s entertainment district, at the south-east corner of the intersection of Bremner Boulevard and York Street. It is comprised of four subgrade levels of parking, a supermarket in the concourse level, mercantile space on the ground floor, below an office block and a hotel, both of which have residential condominium towers above which rise to heights in excess of fifty and fifty-four floors, respectively.

The footings, which include strip footings, spread footings and small raft footings are all founded on shale bedrock, capable of sustaining a pressure of 5000 kilopascals (ie. 104400 pounds or 52.2 tons per square foot).

The subgrade parking levels are typically reinforced concrete 230 mm flat slabs, with 150 mm deep drop panels, cast with 35 megapascal class “C1” concrete. The concourse level is similar except that the flat slabs are 250 mm and 300 mm thick, with 150 mm deep drop panels, and 450 mm deep column capitals.

At the tenth floor, which is the roof levels of the hotel and office blocks, there are concrete perimeter walls defining the bases of the north and south residential towers above. Supported on these perimeter walls, and the interior walls and columns, there are 2000 mm deep transfer slabs, cast with a 50 megapascal concrete, to transfer the loads, from the residential shear walls and columns above, onto the walls and columns of the hotel and office structures below.

In both residential condominium towers, the shear walls interact with the central core, housing the elevators and mechanical shafts, along with the walls of the scissor stairs, to resist lateral wind and seismic forces. Typically, the floors in both towers are 200 mm thick one-way reinforced, and flat plate reinforced, concrete slabs. All floor slabs are cast with 25 megapascal concrete, except at exposed balconies and terraces where the concrete is 30 megapascals at 28 days with six to eight percent entrained air.

Above the elevator machine room, in the south tower, there is a three metre deep water reservoir, which acts as a damper, along with two other damper tanks, in the mechanical penthouse level, to reduce side sway accelerations in the tower, above the office block. The shear walls in the hotel block provided additional stiffness below the tower above, thereby eliminating the need for damper tanks in the taller north tower.

In the columns and shear walls, the concrete strengths vary from 55 megapascals at 90 days in the subgrade levels, to 40 megapascals at 28 days below the third floor, 35 megapascals at 28 days above the third floor, and typically 30 megapascals at 28 days above the forty-first floor.


02 May 2011


Residential 1 Comment

Developer: Castlepoint Realty Partners Limited
Architect: Studio Daniel Libeskind, LLC Design Architect Page + Steele/IBI Group Architect of Record

This sixty-two storey, residential, condominium is constructed over three basement levels, at the north-east corner of the intersection of Yonge Street and The Esplanade.

The foundations are a combination of strip and spread footings, founded on soil capable of safely sustaining a pressure of 3000 kilopascals (i.e. 62,640 pounds, or 31.32 tons per square foot).

The basement levels, and the ground floor framing are generally 230 mm flat slabs with 150 mm deep drop panels. One of the exceptions is on the ground floor where a circular depression has been designed, with beams and 450 mm thick one-way reinforced concrete slabs, to accommodate a transport truck turn-table, in the loading bay.

The floor slabs on the residential floors are typically one-way reinforced, 200 mm thick reinforced concrete slabs spanning between the reinforced concrete shear walls.

The central core which contains mechanical ducts, scissor stairs, and eight elevator shafts, extends the full height of the tower, with three elevators servicing up to the fifty-seventh level.

The shear walls are typically carried up to the fifty-fifth level, above which level some of the shear walls become columns. At the sixtieth level, there is an 11.5 metre by 12.5 metre by 5.0 metre deep reinforced concrete water reservoir tank to attenuate lateral displacement accelerations.

To deal with the setting back of the south-west corner of the structure, below the eleventh floor, post tensioned beams were introduced at the sixth and eleventh floor levels. Also, as a result of the curvature of the north wall, with respect to a flat vertical plane, post-tensioned beams are also incorporated into the framing at the twenty-second, twenty-ninth, thirty-ninth, and forty-ninth floor levels. All the post-tensioned beams are cast monolithically with the 200 mm thick concrete floor slabs. The strength of concrete in the slabs below the sixteenth level is 40 megapascals and above the twenty-eighth level is 25 megapascals.

In order to minimize the sizes of the columns and the thickness of the walls, the concrete strengths specified for these elements, at twenty-eight days, range from 55 megapascals from the B3 level to the sixteenth level, then reducing by 5 megapascal increments down to 25 megapascals, above the thirty-sixth level.

Above a portion of the top of the water reservoir tank, a 1200 mm to 1500 mm haunched slab has been provided to serve as the anchoring platform for a special window washing crane with an hydraulic tower and telescoping boom which is employed to lower a special window washing swing stage down on all four elevations of the special curtain wall cladding.

01 May 2011


Residential 1 Comment

Developer: Hanna Developments Limited  |  Architect: Quadrangle Architects Limited

This condominium lofts residence is comprised of three components, in a former industrial area of the City of Toronto, west of the downtown, which is being revitalized as a residential community.  Two of the blocks built in the early part of the twentieth century, at the north-east corner of the intersection of Hanna Avenue and East Liberty Street served as the factory and warehouse of Irwin Toy Limited.

The oldest component block, of the factory complex, was a timber framed structure within masonry walls, which has been replaced with a new reinforced concrete Block A component founded on 762 mm and 914 mm diameter caissons, carried down to bear on shale capable of sustaining loads of 5000 kilonewtons per square metre, (104,400 pounds, ie. 52 tons per square foot).

Starting with the slab-on-grade, there are four parking levels, three of which are constructed as 200 mm deep flat slabs with 125 mm deep drops carried on rectangular reinforced concrete columns and ramp walls.  Above the fourth parking level, there is a 500 mm deep reinforced concrete transfer slab to carry the loads from the walls and columns above onto the rectangular columns below.  The transfer slab also serves as the floor of the first level of lofts with high ceilings.  On the fifth and sixth levels, there are 180 mm thick reinforced concrete one-way slabs, supported on 200 mm thick reinforced concrete shear walls.  The sixth floor slabs have interior stair penetrations required for the two-storey loft residences.  One-way reinforced concrete slabs which are 180 mm thick serve as the roof framing at the seventh level.

Block B is basically the original structural steel structure, with 65 mm thick wood plank floor decks, from the second floor level through to the fifth floor level, and 38 mm deep by 0.91 mm thick steel roof decking at the sixth level roof.  New steel framing with a composite steel deck floor was added at the north end to connect the fifth floor elevator lobby to the new Block A along with new steel roof deck supported on new structural steel at the sixth level roof.

Block C is also a structural steel structure up to the fourth level, with either wood plank floor and roof deck or 160 mm thick reinforced concrete floor decking, depending upon original use and location.  Above the original fourth level roof, three levels of structural steel framing were added, with 100 mm concrete on 38 mm deep by 0.91 mm thick composite steel floor decks, plus a structural steel frame sloped to roof drains supporting 38 mm deep by 0.91 mm thick steel roof decking and a mechanical penthouse, with a 238 mm thick reinforced concrete floor slab on 38 mm by 1.52 mm thick steel decking, at the eighth level.  The penthouse roof level above is framed with structural steel and 38 mm deep by 0.79 mm thick roof deck.

Because of the typically three added levels in Block C, seven new vertical brace frames were added to resist lateral wind and seismic forces.


30 Apr 2011


Residential 1 Comment

Developer: Block 9B Developments Limited A Consortium of Cadillac Fairview Corporation and Lanterra Developments Limited
Architect: Architects Alliance

The project, consisting of two high-rise residential condominium towers, and future office tower, is located on the west side of York Street, between Brenner Boulevard and Gardiner/Lakeshore Boulevard.

There are five levels of subgrade parking, with the perimeter foundation walls constructed adjacent to a continuous caisson wall at three sides of the property. The shear walls, of the towers, are carried down through the subgrade parking garage and are founded on strip footings, bearing on sound shale bedrock, capable of safely sustaining a pressure of 5000 kilopascals (104,400 pounds per square foot). Similarly, columns, at the perimeter of the towers, are carried down through the substructure and are founded on spread footings, bearing on the same sound shale bedrock.

The south tower rises sixty levels, to the high roof, above three mechanical levels, and the north tower rises seventy levels, to the high roof, above three mechanical levels, from a common two level podium structure. The top mechanical levels, in each of the towers, house a water reservoir which acts as a motion damper tank to reduce lateral accelerations resulting from wind. The water in the tanks is heated to keep it from freezing, and the water is also to be employed for fire fighting.

The wind and seismic forces are resisted by the interaction of the shear walls and the central elevators and stairs cores. The majority of the reinforced concrete shear walls are 400 mm thick in the seventy storey tower, and 350 mm thick in the sixty storey tower, both for their full height, and are cast with concretes which range in strength at 28 days, from 65 MPa, below the third floor, to 30 MPa in the upper most levels.

The residential floors from the third floor up are designed as 200 mm thick flat plates reinforced with reinforcing steel with a yield stress of 400 MPa. The concrete strength at 28 days, in the interior slabs, varies from 45 MPa in the lower floors to 25 MPa in the upper floors. However, the concrete strength for all slabs exposed to weather is 30 MPa with 6 percent to 8 percent entrained air.

There are two banks of elevators, in each tower, with three elevators in each bank, served by a common elevator lobby, but only one of the banks, in each tower, continues above the transfer floors, at the approximate mid-height of the respective towers.

Both towers are clad with glass curtain walls with full storey high windows and doors.

29 Apr 2011


Residential 1 Comment

Developer: Cityzen Development Group
Architect: Architects Alliance

The first phase of this residential condominium project, composed of a twelve storey block and a fourteen storey block, linked by a three storey space bridge truss component, containing three levels of condominium residences, is located on the south side of Queen’s Quay Boulevard East, east of Yonge Street, adjacent to the waters of the Toronto Harbour.

The superstructures and the ground floor landscaped plaza, between the two blocks, are constructed over a four level subgrade parking garage.

Since the project is located in very close proximity to the shores of Lake Ontario, the entire site is enclosed by a continuous perimeter caisson wall, incorporating 915 mm diameter caissons, to facilitate the excavation for both phases 1 and 2, and control the ground water conditions. The footings below the walls and columns are both strip and spread type and bear on natural undisturbed soil capable of safely sustaining a pressure of 2500 kilopascals, (i.e. 52,200 pounds or 26.1 tons per square foot).

The subgrade parking level slabs are typically constructed as 200 mm thick reinforced concrete flat slabs, with 125 mm deep drop panels over the columns. The ground floor slab below the landscaped area is typically a 250 mm thick reinforced concrete flat slab, with 150 mm deep drop panels and 300 mm deep capitals over the columns.

In the west block, the floor slabs are typically 200 mm thick, one-way reinforced concrete slabs spanning between the reinforced concrete shear walls at 6.7 metres on center. Similarly, in the east block, the slabs are the same 200 mm thickness, in the south half, where the reinforced concrete shear walls are at 6.6 metres on center, but in the north half where the reinforced concrete shear walls are spaced at 7.4 metres, the slabs are increased to a thickness of 210 mm.

Spanning between the elevator core, at the north end of the twelfth floor, of the west block, and the stairwell area, at the relative middle of the twelfth floor, of the east block, there is a three storey bridge truss containing three levels of residential condominium units. The three level bridge is in excess of 12.0 metres high by 12.0 metres wide. Within the span, arranged in the party partitions, between suites, there are two vertical brace frame systems incorporating HSS 203x152x9.5 tubular sections, to act as vertical diaphragms, within the tunnel like structure of the bridge. To resist lateral forces, before the roof and floors are cast, to act as diaphragm plates, diagonal bracing, in the form of two 152x89x7.9 angles has been installed below the roof and floor concrete on composite steel decks. The 100 mm thick concrete on 51 mm deep by 0.91 mm thick composite steel deck, of the floors, and 0.76 mm thick composite steel deck of the roof are supported on W460x74 purlins at the twelfth floor level, W460x68 purlins at the thirteenth, and fourteenth floor levels and by W460x52 structural steel purlins at the roof level.

28 Apr 2011


Residential 1 Comment

Developer: Invar Developments
Architect: Page + Steele Architects Planners

This four storey up scale condominium, designed to resemble a palatial French chateau, is located at the south-east corner of Bayview Avenue and Post Road, in Toronto.

It is founded on strip footings, and spread footings, bearing on natural undisturbed soil with a safe bearing capacity of 500 kilopascals, (ie. 10,440 pounds or 5.22 tons per square foot).

Since each residential unit, above the ground floor, is accessed by an elevator, opening directly into the suite, there are five elevator shafts with two elevators in each shaft and five sets of scissor stairs.

For the most part, the ground floor slab is a 600 mm thick reinforced concrete flat plate with 300 mm deep capitals functioning as a transfer structure to carry the loads from the walls and columns above onto the grid of the garage columns below. The ground floor slab is cast with concrete, specified to have a strength of 35 megapascals at twenty-eight days.

The three floor levels above the ground floor, are designed as 210 mm thick reinforced concrete, flat plates, supported on rectangular columns and shear walls, which also act as part of the fire compartmentalization. The upper floors and low roof slabs are cast with concrete with a specified twenty-eight days strength of 30 megapascals.

The roofs of the five elevator penthouses are one-way reinforced concrete slabs supported on the reinforced concrete elevator shaft walls, and reinforced concrete perimeter beams, supported on reinforced concrete columns, carried on the 280 mm to 365 mm thick reinforced concrete flat plate, of the low roof, with slopes to the roof drains.

The high roofs of the four mechanical penthouses are constructed of structural steel beams, supported on structural steel columns, bearing on the 385 mm thick portions of the low roof. The steel beams carry 38 mm deep, by 0.91 mm thick, steel roof deck. Inclined structural steel rafters are used, at the perimeters of the mechanical penthouses, to support the same type of steel decking, and to achieve the Mansard style roofs which are clad with slate shingles.

In addition to the one level of subgrade parking, there are amenities facilities in the lower level, below grade, which includes a large Roman style swimming pool with a two sided semi-circular grand stairway leading out to a beautifully landscaped garden.

The building is clad with precast concrete cladding replicating classical stone work.

27 Apr 2011


Residential 1 Comment

Developer: Pemberton SMC Bay Inc.
Architect: Architects Alliance

This residential complex, composed of three, three storey townhouse blocks, with private elevators, and roof terraces, a forty-six storey west tower, and a fifty-six storey east tower is located at the west side of Bay Street, south of St. Mary Street. The buildings are grouped to enclose a landscaped courtyard, with granite cobble paving, all of which is over five levels of subgrade parking.

The columns of the two towers, and the core walls in each tower, are founded on 2000 mm deep raft footing mats with nine or sixteen additional 1200 mm diameter caissons positioned uniformly below the central cores of each tower, below the tower mat footings. All footings bear on natural undisturbed soil, with a safe bearing capacity of 600 kilopascals,
(ie. 12,528 pounds or 6.26 tons per square foot).

For the most part, the subgrade parking level slabs, P1 through P4, are 200 mm thick reinforced concrete flat slabs, with 150 mm deep drop panels, over the columns. On the P1 level, below the three townhouse blocks, where the slab acts as a transfer slab, to pick up the townhouses’ walls, above, and redirect the loads onto the parking garage columns below, the slab thickness is increased to 500 mm, and the drop panels are replaced with 300 mm deep capitals on the columns below.

The ground floor slab, beyond the high-rise towers, and the townhouse blocks, is a 250 mm thick reinforced concrete flat slab with 150 mm deep drop panels, and 300 mm deep capitals, over the columns.

The superstructure floors in the west tower are 200 mm thick reinforced concrete, one-way reinforced between shear walls, with flat plate reinforcing at the bays in the four corners. The east, taller, tower has similarly reinforced concrete slabs, except that the thicknesses are 225 mm. All of the floor slabs are cast with concrete with a specified twenty-eight days strength of 25 megapascals, except that for the balconies and terraces, the concrete strength at twenty-eight days was specified to be 30 megapascals, and to have 6 to 8 percent of entrained air.

Lateral forces resulting from wind and seismic effects are resisted by the interaction of the reinforced concrete shear walls and the central, reinforced concrete cores. The core in the east tower accommodates five elevators and a scissor stair, and the core in the west tower accommodates four elevators and a scissor stair.

The shear walls in the east tower, above the fourth level, are generally 350 mm thick, up to the forty-third level, where they reduce to a thickness of 300 mm up to the fifty-fifth level. Similarly, in the west tower, the shear walls at the fourth level are generally 350 mm thick, however, from the fifth level up the thirty-fourth level, the thickness is, generally, reduced to 300 mm, and is further reduced, generally, to 250 mm from the thirty-fourth level up to the forty-fifth level.

26 Apr 2011


Residential 2 Comments

Developer: Cityscape Development
Architect: Architects Alliance

This condominium project, located at the south-east corner of the intersection of Mill and Parliament Streets, in the redeveloping distillery district of Toronto, is comprised of a nine storey podium, with retail space on the ground floor, and a thirty-four level residential tower.

There are three levels of subgrade parking below the entire project, and three levels of above grade parking, in the podium, west of the tower portion. Amenities including a landscaped terrace, a swimming pool, a whirlpool, and associated change rooms, with saunas, lockers and showers, among others, are provided on the sixth floor. The sixth floor also contains two storey residences west of the tower.

The entire project is founded on a reinforced concrete raft, with a minimum thickness of 450 mm, which increases to 620 mm to provide slopes to drains. Below the columns and shear walls, there are deeper spread footing pads embedded within haunched thickenings of the raft. The raft was also designed to accommodate embedded floor drainage pipes and an uplift pressure of a six metre head of water.

Typically, west of the tower, the shear walls extend up to the underside of the 230 mm thick, one-way reinforced, eighth floor slab. The ninth level roof of the podium is a reinforced concrete flat slab with a variable thickness of 230 mm to 300 mm, to provide slopes to roof drains, with 150 mm deep drop panels over the columns.

From the third level up to the twenty-fifth level, the floor slabs, within the tower, are 200 mm thick, reinforced concrete, flat plates, combined with 200 mm thick, one-way reinforced, concrete slabs, spanning between shear walls. From the twenty-sixth level, up to the top residential level, at the thirty-second floor, the framing of the slabs are, in general, the same as for the lower floors; the only difference being slight modifications, which adjusted the lengths of, or introduced openings into, the reinforced concrete shear walls.

All of the residential floor slabs are cast with concrete having a specified twenty-eight days strength of 30 megapascals. At the circular columns, from the eighth floor up, in the tower, rows of shear stud rails, with six 9.5 mm diameter by 160 mm long studs at 120 mm centers, are cast into the slabs, to overcome excessive shear stresses.

Lateral forces, resulting from wind and seismic affects, are resisted by the interaction of the central core, containing a three elevator shaft and a scissor stair, with the shear walls.

The strength of the concrete, in the tower walls and columns, at twenty-eight days, was specified to be 50 megapascals, below the fourth level, and was decreased in 5 megapascal increments, down to 30 megapascals, above the thirtieth level.